of consequentialism is classical utilitarianism, which holds that every action is to be judged good or bad according to whether its consequences do more than any alternative action to increaseor, if that is impossible, to minimize any decrease inthe. He is thus an early representative of moral skepticism and perhaps ethical egoism, the view that the right thing to do is to pursue ones own interest ( see below Ethical egoism ). Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. Furthermore, each of the basic goods is regarded as equally fundamental; there is no hierarchy among them. Nevertheless, it must be said that Nietzsche left himself wide open to those who wanted his philosophical imprimatur for their crimes against humanity. Butler was not doubting the reasonableness of pursuing ones own happiness as an ultimate aim. The latter half of this question was particularly acute, because the Gospels describe Jesus as repeatedly warning of a coming resurrection of the dead at which time all would be judged and punished or rewarded according to their sins and virtues in this life (. In 2000 the World Medical Association, responding to reports of abuses, revised its Declaration of Helsinki, which sets out the ethical principles that should govern medical research involving human subjects. Other duties are not, however, presented as derivative from this supreme principle, nor is the principle used to determine what should be done when two or more specific dutiese.
Hobbes witnessed the turbulence and near anarchy of the English Civil Wars (164251) and was keenly aware of the dangers caused by disputed sovereignty. At about this time a different form of subjectivism was gaining currency on the Continent and to some extent in the United States. John Stuart Mill, for example, argued that an act is morally wrong only when both it fails to maximize utility and its agent is liable to punishment for the failure (Mill 1861). We do not think that capturing the economy and the state lead automatically to the transformation of the rest of social being, nor do we equate liberation with changing our life-styles and our heads. He refused to discuss abstract metaphysical problems such as the immortality of the soul. But how is the social contract to come about? Given the premise that human beings wish their species to survive as long as possible, evolutionary theory may indicate some general courses of action that humankind as a whole should pursue or avoid; but even this premise cannot be regarded as unquestionable. Some utilitarians bite the bullet and say that Alice's act was morally wrong, but it was blameless wrongdoing, because her motives were good, and she was not responsible, given that she could not have foreseen that her act would cause harm. In any case, Luther insisted that one does not earn salvation by good works; one is justified by faith in Christ and receives salvation through divine grace. Here it is not possible to do more than briefly mention some of the major areas of applied ethics and point to the issues that they raise. Augustine believed that all human beings bear the burden of Adams original sin ( see Adam and Eve ) and so are incapable of redeeming themselves by their own efforts.
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