that carry potential criminal penalties, and perhaps that Congress then be required to ratify any such regulation before it can provide the basis for a criminal prosecution. Others (discussed in chapter three) he regards as 'external' to the criminal law, in the sense that they call for an independent defence, a defence that Husak amply provides. The Department of Justice must with greater vigor police those empowered to prosecute. Overcriminalization: The Limits of the Criminal Law (2007 Andrew Ashworth, Conceptions of Overcriminalization, 5 Ohio. It is surprisingly easy for otherwise law-abiding citizens to run afoul of the overwhelming number of federal and state criminal laws. This, then, is Husak's compelling diagnosis of the problem. This doctrine is not specific to the enactment of criminal laws and unlike a presumption it does not let anyone off the hook when they do nothing because they cannot be bothered to make a good argument for doing something. As FDRs Attorney General (later Justice) Robert. The Supreme Court rejected the governments expansive view of the statute and narrowed the statute to its core purposeprosecuting kickback and bribery schemes. A higher standard of justification should be applied throughout the criminal arena' (125). Many may well have reasoned that people whose conduct affected health and safety should be bound to pay particular attention and that if they let their intention flag, it was not unreasonable to hold them to a strict standard of something less than criminal intent.
The Lewis case is an example of the result of a process that started out with good intentions but has taken us far down the road that the old proverb tells us is paved with good intentions. It is not immanent in the law. Does all this really go back to Magna Carta?
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6, proliferation of Federal Crimes, the Congressional Research Service reportedly has been unable to come up with a definitive total of federal criminal laws; the nearest they could come was to say they number in the thousands. Over-breadth in the criminal law symbolism of the glass menagerie essay can lead to a near-paranoid corporate culture that is constantly looking over its shoulder for the long arm of the law and wondering whether a good-faith business decision will be interpreted as a crime by an ambitious prosecutor armed with. 601 (1971) (explosives United States. 2d 330, 38182 (S.D.N.Y.) (noting that the threat of indictment can be a matter of life and death to many companies and therefore a matter that threatens the jobs and security of blameless employees 440. It is important to see both dimensions of the problem. This Husak bases on the thought that punishment infringes rights, and that 'the burden of proof in justifying the infringement of rights is generally placed on those who would potentially violate them' (100). I have suggested that, on this score, appearances are not deceptive. So our attention moves on to what Husak calls 'external constraints to showing that today's legislators are overstepping the mark whatever the criminal law itself may have to say on the subject. But what is the constraint worth? It calls for independent defence. Law Quarterly Review 116 (2000 225. Brown, Can Criminal Law Be Controlled?, 108 Mich.
I admire Husak enormously for his willingness to take the task on, and for the lively, sensible, and good-natured tone that he brings. Rather, it is an arbiter of the law. And thus it has been since.